India & the Kyoto Protocol
The Government of India had decided to ratify the Kyoto Protocol in 2002 after 77 countries had ratified the Protocol. India was not required to reduce emission of Green House Gases under the Protocol under which basically the developed countries were required to reduce emissions of GHG by an average of 5.2 per cent below 1990 level by 2012. Being in Developing & Non-annex countries, India ratified the convention to seek benefit from transfer of technology and additional foreign investments when the Kyoto Protocol comes into force. This was expected to be followed by new investments in renewable energy, energy generation and efficiency promotion and afforestation projects. India is fully committed to the Kyoto Protocol and has now recently been very active in the talks for further emission reduction commitments of Annex-I Parties in the Second Commitment Period (Post 2012). The talks are undergoing since 2004, from COP-10, Argentina, when for the first time, discussions on the post-Kyoto mechanism, on how to allocate emission reduction obligation following 2012 started. India, along with South Africa and 35 other like minded countries has submitted a proposal calling for Annex-I Parties to agree to at least 40% emission reduction commitment by 2020 as compared to their 1990 levels. India has been one of the major beneficiaries of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), a flexible mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol and would like that this mechanism to continue.