INDIA’S National Action Plan On Climate Change
The Indian Government has taken steps at the national level to address the above through the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC), environmental laws and energy policies.
On June 30 2008, the Prime Minister released the NAPCC, intended to provide a concrete road map detailing how India plans to move forward in combating climate change. The NAPCC sets out eight core ‘National Missions’ with the focus on ‘promoting understanding of climate change, adaptation and mitigation, energy efficiency and natural resource conservation’. National Missions in Brief
- National Solar Mission: The NAPCC aims to promote the development and use of solar energy for power generation and other uses with the ultimate objective of making solar competitive with fossil-based energy options. The plan includes: Specific goals for increasing use of solar thermal technologies in urban areas, industry, and commercial establishments; A goal of increasing production of photovoltaic’s to 1000 MW/year; and A goal of deploying at least 1000 MW of solar thermal power generation. Other objectives include the establishment of a solar research center, increased international collaboration on technology development, strengthening of domestic manufacturing capacity, and increased government funding and international support.
- National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency: To promote the market for energy efficiency by fostering innovative policies and effective market instruments. The mission document, which was approved in 2010, established the immense energy efficiency potential of India, which was about Rs. 74,000 crores. The Mission, upon its complete execution, envisages to achieve total avoided capacity addition of 19,598 MW, fuel savings of around 23 million tonnes per year and green house gas emissions reductions of 98.55 million tonnes per year.A recent World Bank study has estimated the country’s energy efficiency market to be at 1.6 lakh crores.The Ministry of Power, Government of India, through Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE), looks over the progress of the this mission.
- National Mission on Sustainable Habitat: To promote energy efficiency as a core component of urban planning, extending the existing Energy Conservation Building Code, a greater emphasis on urban waste management and recycling including power production from waste, Strengthening the enforcement of automotive fuel economy standards and using pricing measures to encourage the purchase of efficient vehicles, andIncentives for the use of public transportation.
- National Water Mission: With water scarcity projected to worsen as a result of climate change, the plan sets a goal of a 20% improvement in water use efficiency through pricing and other measures to deal with water scarcity as a result of climate change.
- National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem: The plan aims to conserve biodiversity, forest cover, and other ecological values in the Himalayan region, where glaciers that are a major source of India’s water supply are projected to recede as a result of global warming. This particular mission sets the goal to prevent melting of the Himalayan glaciers.
- National Mission for a “Green India”: Goals include the afforestation of 6 million hectares of degraded forest lands and expanding forest cover from 23% to 33% of India’s territory.
- National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture: The plan aims to support climate adaptation in agriculture through the development of climate-resilient crops, expansion of weather insurance mechanisms, and agricultural practices.
- National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change: To gain a better understanding of climate science, impacts and challenges, the plan envisions a new Climate Science Research Fund, improved climate modeling, and increased international collaboration. It also encourage private sector initiatives to develop adaptation and mitigation technologies through venture capital funds.
The NAPCC also describes other initiatives/programs that are as follows :
- Power generation: The government is mandating the retirement of inefficient coal-fired power plants and supporting the research and development of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle IGCC and supercritical technologies.
- Renewable energy: Under the Electricity Act 2003 and the National Tariff Policy 2006, the central and the state electricity regulatory commissions must purchase a certain percentage of grid-based power from renewable sources.
- Energy efficiency: Under the Energy Conservation Act 2001, large energy-consuming industries are required to undertake energy audits and an energy-labeling program for appliances has been introduced.
- Proposals for health sector: The proposed program comprises two main components, namely provision of enhanced public health care services and assessment of increased burden of diseases due to climate change